We, the Economic Leaders of the Asia-Pacific
Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, gathered in
under the theme: “A New Commitment to Asia-Pacific Development”. The theme
chosen for APEC 2008 highlights the importance of reducing the gap between
developed and developing member economies.
We are committed to strengthening the social dimension of globalization
and ensuring that all members and all sectors of our economies can access the
skills and opportunities to participate in, and benefit from, regional and
global trade and investment.
The current global financial crisis is one of the most
serious economic challenges we have ever faced.
We will act quickly and decisively to address the impending global
We welcomed the
monetary and fiscal stimulus provided by APEC member economies and will take
all necessary economic and financial measures to resolve this crisis, taking
the necessary actions to offer hope
tothose most in need
. Our resolve to address the deteriorating global
economic situation, and support a prompt, ambitious and balanced conclusion to
the WTO Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations, is outlined in a separate
statement issued at this meeting.
REGIONAL ECONOMIC CHALLENGES
Advancing Regional Economic Integration
Last year we agreed to an ambitious long-term
agenda to strengthen regional economic integration.
We welcomed the 2008 progress report from
Ministers and officials on efforts to achieve this goal. We endorsed the 2009
work plan for the APEC Regional Economic Integration (REI) Agenda in order to
build upon this year’s accomplishments on REI and to accelerate efforts in all
areas of this agenda.
Our goal of free and open trade and
investment in the Asia-Pacific region will be achieved through a series of
unilateral reform measures combined with bilateral, regional and multilateral
We are committed to
continuing the implementation of APEC’s REI Agenda.
In that regard, we:
welcomed progress made by
member economies towards the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and
investment in the Asia-Pacific region. We reinforced our commitment to
achieving the Bogor Goals to promote growth, development and a rapid
recovery from the current global slowdown.
we commended the progress made in examining the prospects and options
of a possible Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) as a long-term
We noted advice from Ministers
that while an FTAAP would likely be of economic benefit to the region as a
whole, there would also be challenges in its creation. We instructed
Ministers and officials to undertake further steps in examining the
prospects and options of a possible FTAAP, including by conducting further
analytical work on the likely economic impact of an FTAAP, and discussing
the possible capacity building requirements for any possible future
negotiations. In addition, we instructed officials to undertake initiatives
designed to promote greater convergence among economies in key areas of
APEC’s trade and investment portfolio, including areas such as customs
administration, trade facilitation and cross-border services.
five new model measures, resulting in a set of 15 completed chapters for
Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) that
will promote high-quality RTAs/FTAs and greater consistency and coherence
among these agreements in the region.
endorsed the continued
process of implementation of APEC’s second Trade Facilitation Action Plan
(TFAP II) to achieve our stated goal of reducing trade transaction costs
by an additional five percent between 2007 - 2010.
welcomed the APEC Investment
Facilitation Action Plan (IFAP) to improve the investment environment in
the region and commended the initiation of the study of bilateral
investment agreements and core-investment-related activities of existing
the importance of strengthening financial markets in the region and
welcomed the capacity building activities initiated by APEC Finance
Ministers to reform capital markets. We recognized the pressing need for
infrastructure development in APEC economies and welcomed the work
undertaken by Finance Ministers on linkages between private public
partnerships and capital market development.
In this regard, we called on Finance
Ministers to examine more fully the means to optimize linkages between
private infrastructure finance and growth and development.
our commitment to strengthen the protection and enforcement of
intellectual property rights (IPR) in the region, and reiterated the
importance of comprehensive and balanced IPR systems that provide for and
protect the incentives that encourage creation and innovation. We will
continue to promote greater collaboration among our IPR experts and
welcomed the progress by economies to implement the APEC
Anti-Counterfeiting and Piracy Initiative as well as efforts to improve
patent systems in the region and look forward to further progress in this
area next year.
the Digital Prosperity Checklist as an important tool in APEC´s efforts to
promote sustained economic growth through the use and development of
information and communication technologies.
We welcomed the views and work carried out by
the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) on improving the business
environment, and called for an active participation of small and medium
enterprises (SMEs) in the REI agenda.
We asked Ministers and officials to continue
the implementation of the REI Agenda as outlined in the progress report and
report back to us in 2009 with a summary of steps taken to promote this
Noting the increased economic integration in
the region, we also discussed Australia´s suggestions on how regional
architecture can keep pace with changing circumstances.
We agreed that our
Leader’s Agenda to Implement Structural Reform (LAISR) is a central element of
APEC’s agenda, integrating the three pillars of trade and investment
liberalization, business facilitation, and economic and technical assistance
We reiterated the
fundamental importance of tackling ‘behind-the-border’ barriers to trade and
investment in the creation of well-performing, resilient and robust economies.
We welcomed the
outcomes of the Structural Reform Ministerial Meeting (SRMM), held in
Melbourne in August 2008
and noted the endorsement by Ministers of APEC’s Good Practice Guide on Regulatory
Reform. We recognized the importance of developing a program of practical
support for member economies to successfully undertake structural reform. This
includes capacity building initiatives in the areas of regulatory reform,
corporate governance and other LAISR areas. We encouraged active participation
in the voluntary system of peer or self-review of our economies’ efforts to
implement structural economic reform.
publication of the annual APEC Economic Policy Report and the accelerated work
plan for Private Sector Development endorsed by Trade Ministers in June.
Improving Food Security in the Asia-Pacific
are deeply concerned about the impact that volatile global food prices,
combined with food shortages in some developing economies, are having on our
achievements in reducing poverty and lifting real incomes over the last
The poor are especially
vulnerable to increases in food prices.
We support a fully coordinated response
and a comprehensive strategy to tackle this issue through the Comprehensive
Framework for Action developed by the United Nations (UN) Task Force on the
Global Food Security Crisis.
We will support the application
and implementation of this Framework within the region, as appropriate.
Individual and collective policy responses to
expand food and agricultural supply in the region should strengthen market
forces to encourage new investment in agricultural technology and production
A prompt, ambitious and
balanced conclusion to the WTO DDA negotiations would deliver substantial
improvements in market access and reduce market-distorting measures in global
commended the work that APEC has undertaken in the area of food and
agriculture, and welcome the work plan endorsed by APEC Ministers to refine and
strengthen APEC’s agenda to meet current and emerging food security
We also recognized the role
of ABAC in raising the importance of food and agricultural issues on the APEC
We directed APEC to increase technical
cooperation and capacity building that will help foster agricultural sector
growth, including efforts to increase food production; improve agricultural
education; enhance natural resource management; promote the development of next
generation biofuels made from non-food materials; build well-functioning
markets and regulatory institutions; and make food storage, transportation, and
distribution systems more efficient. We pledged cooperation to bolster
conditions conducive to promoting agricultural research and development.
We directed APEC to help member economies
develop science-based regulatory frameworks to benefit from the potential of
SOCIAL DIMENSION OF GLOBALIZATION
Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Asia-Pacific
We stressed that globalization based on
economic, social and environmental progress can bring sustainable benefits to
all APEC economies, their business sectors and their people.
CSR can reinforce the positive effects that trade
and investment have on growth, competitiveness and sustainable
We encourage responsible
and transparent business conduct that adheres to local legislation and
regulations and takes into account guidelines related to CSR that have been developed
by multilateral bodies, as appropriate.
We agreed that given increasing expectations
amongst global consumers, investors and business partners regarding responsible
and sustainable business practices, the voluntary activities that comprise
CSR will remain an important aspect of doing
business in the 21st century. We recognize that all stakeholders in our
communities benefit when governments foster a business environment that
encourages voluntary CSR practices.
will create greater value both for businesses and for the societies in which
We welcomed the work that has been undertaken
within APEC to promote CSR awareness and capabilities in the region, and future
work that will encourage dialogue on CSR among relevant stakeholders including:
businesses, governments, employees, communities, consumers, investors, and
recognized ABAC’s efforts in promoting CSR awareness and uptake in the region
through the dissemination of information regarding CSR principles, practices
We encouraged companies to incorporate CSR
into their business strategies to take account of social, labour and
of CSR in the region will depend on the different domestic economic, social and
cultural context of APEC members.
agreed to promote CSR practices in APEC economies on a voluntary basis in
business operations of all sizes to complement public policies that foster
Combating Corruption in the Region
Corruption in both the public and private
sectors is a serious threat to social and economic development in the
We recognize that when criminal
entities collude with corrupt public and private sector officials, it results
in a culture of impunity and financial exploitation of the legitimate
agreed to leverage our collective will to combat corruption and related
transnational illicit networks by promoting clean government, supporting
public-private partnerships, fostering market integrity, and transparent
financial systems. We recognize that the criminalization of corruption can
facilitate greater regional cooperation.
In support of our earlier APEC
anti-corruption commitments, we commend efforts undertaken by member economies
to develop comprehensive anti-corruption strategies.
These include efforts to restore the public
trust and protect against the abuse of our financial system through financial
intelligence and law enforcement cooperation related to corrupt payments and
illicit financial flows.
activities through APEC are consistent with the UN Convention Against
Corruption (UNCAC), which we encouraged economies to ratify and implement, where
applicable. We also supported the revised Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
recommendations, where appropriate.
We welcomed the Lima Anti-Corruption
Declaration on Financial Market Integrity through Effective Public-Private
Partnerships and the APEC Guidelines for Public-Private Action against
Strengthening Cooperation and
APEC’s program of Economic and Technical Cooperation
(ECOTECH) is essential to achieving our objective of building capacity in a
range of sectors in APEC economies.
reaffirmed our commitment to the Manila Framework, which serves as the basis
for the implementation of the ECOTECH activities outlined in the Osaka Action
We welcomed contributions from
economies to APEC’s capacity building programmes.
China’s proposal to host the 5th
APEC Human Resources Development Ministerial Meeting in 2010.
Ensuring that all members of our economies
receive a quality education is critical to achieving social, individual,
economic and sustainable development.
enables people to take advantage of the opportunities created by globalization.
We supported the efforts of APEC Education
Ministers to strengthen education systems in the region including ongoing
support to the APEC Education Network.
We welcomed the research-based steps taken by APEC in the areas of
mathematics and science; language learning; career and technical
education/technical vocational education and training; and information
and communication technologies (ICT) and systemic reform. We support the recommendation of Education
Ministers to facilitate international exchanges, working towards reciprocal
exchanges of talented students, graduates and researchers.
We reaffirmed our commitment to build
regional capacity to minimize health-related threats including avian and human
influenza pandemics and communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS.
We welcomed continuing efforts to ensure
economies are well prepared to deal with health threats and to respond to them
in a way that minimizes their adverse impacts on human welfare, trade and
We reaffirmed our commitment
to improve food and product safety standards and practices to facilitate trade
and ensure the health and safety of our populations.
We endorsed the work of the APEC Food Safety
Cooperation Forum’s Partnership Training Institute Network and called on
Ministers to take additional steps to enhance food and product safety next
We are concerned that gender discrimination
continues to have a significant impact on our economies. We committed to
strengthening the capacity of APEC members to ensure that gender considerations
are taken into account in the development of trade and economic policy, and to
ensuring that the region’s women are better able to participate in and benefit
from regional and global trade.
ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY IN THE REGION
Combating Terrorism and Securing Regional Trade
Enhancing human security and protecting the
region’s business and trade against natural, accidental or deliberate
disruptions remains an enduring priority for APEC, and an essential enabling
element in APEC’s core trade and investment agenda.
We agreed that international terrorism and
the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery
pose a direct threat to our vision of free, open, peaceful and prosperous societies,
and reaffirmed our commitment to eliminate these threats. Since 2001, we have
worked together with a common understanding that all terrorist acts are
criminal and unjustifiable, and must be unequivocally condemned, especially
when they target or injure civilians, or use the abhorrent practices of suicide
bombing and hostage taking.
all forms and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever
purposes, is a profound threat to the peace and security of all people, and of
all faiths. Terrorist acts cannot be excused or justified by any alleged cause,
conflict, oppression, or poverty.
We agreed that terrorist attempts to
abuse or corrupt trade flows, finance, transportation, travel communications
and modern technologies will not be tolerated.
We pledged our full cooperation to ensure that the flow of people, goods
and investments remained secure and open, and that economies and markets
operated without disruption.
the initiative of a group of member economies led by
Singapore to undertake a Trade
Recovery Programme pilot exercise in 2009.
We recognized the
important role played by the UN and its Global
stressed the need for implementation, where applicable, of UN counter-terrorism
measures and the Financial Action Task Force’s (FATF) Special Recommendations
on Terrorist Financing.
We urged APEC
Ministers and officials to continue to help secure the region’s economic,
trade, investment and financial systems from terrorist attack or abuse and
trade-based money laundering.
the ongoing efforts of the international community to combat piracy and armed robbery at sea and encouraged further concerted efforts to
fight against piracy.
Disaster Risk Reduction, Preparedness and Management
The frequency and intensity of natural
disasters related to the distortion of climate patterns in the region is
increasing and the location of, and growth of, cities and mega-cities in
vulnerable areas increases the impact of catastrophic events.
Improving risk reduction, disaster
preparedness and management in the region is a critical human security issue
facing the region.
We agreed that the
challenges in this area are significant and growing in complexity and required
greater international cooperation and coordination with the private sector,
international organizations and non-government organizations.
We recognized that there continues to be
operational challenges in regional disaster responses and greater coordination is
needed as the number of disaster management arrangements and players in the
region continues to grow.
We agreed that
greater focus is needed on disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and
building domestic disaster management capabilities.
In this regard, we welcomed the adoption of
an APEC Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Preparedness and
Response initiated by Peru; the APEC Principles on Disaster Response and
Cooperation proposed by China; the Stocktake on Disaster Management Capacity Building
Needs; and welcomed the Australia-Indonesia proposal for a Disaster Risk Reduction
Facility and its linkages to APEC economies and the APEC Task Force on
We endorsed the priority APEC has given to
promoting risk management, business resilience and public-private sector
partnerships, and supported efforts to prepare economies for the recovery
phase. We instructed officials to undertake long-term capacity building
projects aimed at accelerating recovery in disaster affected areas in APEC
economies and supported the inclusion of education on disaster issues in school
curricula where appropriate.
ENERGY SECURITY AND CLEAN DEVELOPMENT
Our ability to successfully confront the
challenge of climate change will be crucial to the wellbeing
of future generations.As a global issue, climate change must be addressed
in a comprehensive manner, through international cooperation under the UN
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2009.
Reducing poverty is likely to become more difficult in those developing
economies most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and related
natural disasters. We reaffirmed our commitment to the Sydney APEC Leaders’
Declaration on Climate Change, Energy Security and Clean Development.
We support decisive and effective long term
cooperation now, up to and beyond 2012 to address climate change under the UNFCCC,
in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities
and respective capabilities.
decisions taken by the international community at the UN Climate Change Conference
Bali in 2007 and the efforts to build a
consensus on long term cooperative action, including a global emission
reduction goal. We also noted the declaration in this regard by the G8 Hokkaido
Toyako Summit held in July this year. We recognize the economic diversity and
different domestic circumstances of individual APEC economies in addressing
reaffirmed our commitment to the Action Agenda announced as part of the Sydney
We appreciate and encourage
the efforts of individual APEC economies to meet these goals.
We also welcomed the establishment of the
Asia-Pacific Network for sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation
(APFNet) and appreciate
commitment to further financial support for this initiative.
We expressed support for
the cooperation and capacity building for climate change mitigation and
adaptation, including those that promote the development and deployment of
clean technologies. We appreciate
Japan and the
financial support for the Climate Investment Funds, particularly the Clean
recognized the value of conservation, sustainable forests management and land
use practices and enhancement of carbon stocks in forests and agricultural
soils for carbon sequestration in the global response to climate change.
that climate change could impede economies’ abilities to achieve sustainable
economic growth and reduce poverty, we strongly support international
cooperation and capacity building for mitigation and adaptation as objectives
that should be equally pursued, including those that promote low-emissions
technology development and transfer to, and financial support for, developing
We also call for additional
and coordinated efforts to better understand vulnerabilities caused by the
impact of climate change on our oceans and their resources to develop more
effective adaptation strategies.
We endorsed the positive
contribution of the Major Economies Leaders’ Declaration to the UNFCCC.
We committed to concerted action under the UN
and complementary processes to reach an equitable and effective post-2012
international climate change arrangement at the UN Climate Change Conference in
Conscious that access to adequate, reliable,
clean and affordable energy resources is vital to sustaining economic
prosperity in the region, we reaffirmed our commitment to supporting the
energy needs of regional economies by promoting open energy markets and free
energy trade and investment. Such markets are crucial to the
development of renewable sources of energy and the dissemination of low
emission energy technologies, including new and alternative energy
resources and technologies.
encouraged our officials to promote such developments and urge them to pursue
regional energy efficiencies and maximize the potential development of clean
APEC is the pre-eminent forum for
economic cooperation in the region.
are committed to strengthening APEC’s institutional processes to ensure it
remains responsive to a rapidly changing global environment.
Cooperative action within APEC can contribute
to better outcomes on the major international challenges we face.
We welcomed advice from APEC Ministers on the
successful establishment of a Policy Support Unit in the APEC Secretariat as
well as progress on the appointment of an Executive Director of the APEC Secretariat
for a fixed term.
We endorsed in full the Joint Statement of
Ministers at the 20th APEC Ministerial Meeting.
We welcomed the offer of
host APEC in 2013. We welcomed the invitation from the Prime Minister of
Singapore to meet again in
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